The Skeletal System, Bones and Joints

This week is Halloween and we are studying...
The Skeletal System, Bones and Joints!

What is a Bone?

n  The skeletal system is made up of the bones and cartilage that forms the framework of your body.
n  We have bones so that we are not a puddle of skin and guts on the floor.
n  Babies have 300 bones.
n  Adults have 206 bones.

What is the Skeletal System?
        Your Skeletal system is all of the bones in the body and the tissues such as tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connect them.

Your teeth are also considered part of your skeletal system but they are not counted as bones. Your teeth are made of enamel and dentin. Enamel is the strongest substance in your body.


What is the Function (or purpose) of the Skeletal System

The main job of the skeleton is to provide support for our body. Without your skeleton your body would collapse into a heap. Your skeleton is strong but light. Without bones you'd be just a puddle of skin and guts on the floor.
Your skeleton also helps protect your internal organs and fragile body tissues. The brain, eyes, heart, lungs and spinal cord are all protected by your skeleton. Your cranium (skull) protects your brain and eyes, the ribs protect your heart and lungs and your vertebrae (spine, backbones) protect your spinal cord.
Bones provide the structure for muscles to attach so that our bodies are able to move. Tendons are tough inelastic bands that hold attach muscle to bone.
More reasons we need bones...they make our BLOOD!
 In the middle of some bones is jelly-like bone marrow,
                         where new cells are constantly being produced for the blood.

 The Bones of the Skeletal System


Bones Connect at Joints

They connect with connective tissue...
Joints consist of bones, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and other connective tissue.
  • Tendon joins muscle to bone enabling movement.
  • Ligament joins bone to bone, stabilising the joint.


    When a bone is pulled out of its joint, a dislocation occurs.
    Ligaments are the tissue that hold bones in their joints. They are like very strong rubber bands. When a bone is dislocated, the ligaments are either stretched too far or torn. While you can put the bone back in by pulling on it and allowing it to snap back into place, you should be checked out by a doctor to make sure there is no damage to the ligaments and surrounding tissue. Plus, a doctor might recommend that a dislocation, even though put back into place, should be immobilized for a while to allow the surrounding area to heal from the shock and trauma.
    Basic Joint Anatomy

    Why is there little to no movement in a fibrous joint? Because the bones making them up are made of fibrous tissue, which is very tough.

    What is an example of a fibrous joint? The bones in your skull.

    Describe a cartilaginous joint and give an example. Very little movement occurs between a cartilaginous joint. It's formed by two bones that are united by intervening fibrocartilage. Example: Vertebrate of the spinal column are formed by intervertebral disks.

    What type of joint essentially allows free movement? Synovial joint.

    What lubricates a joint cavity? Synovial fluid.

    For the following joint types please list the name of the joint type, the type of movement of the joint, the shape of the joint and an example:

    Plane joint - gliding in any direction - slightly curved articular surfaces - carpal bones in the hand

    Hinge joint - rotation around a single axis - one irregular cylinder surface and one surface with a concave groove - the elbow joint

    Condylar joint - Similar to a hinge joint but permits more movement - two articular surfaces (condyles) - the knee joint

    Ball and Socket joint - many different directions - a spherical articulation fitting into a cup shaped cavity - the shoulder joint

    Ellipsoidal joint - much movement, like with the wrist joint - like the ball and socket joint, only the ball joint is oval shaped - the wrist joint

    Pivot joint - allows for two bones to pivot around one another - a bony peg that fits into a concave notch - the joint between the radius and ulna

    Saddle joint - many directions - resembles two western saddles - the joint at the base of the thumb .

    Coming soon... The Muscular System and Integumentary System (protects and covers the muscular system, the largest organ in the body... skin)

    Respiration Review!

    Test this Thursday October 25, 2012
    We are having a test over Respiration. Let's Review!
    We completed the review today in class.
    Respiration Test with Answers download here
    The test will cover Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration and the Respiratory System.
    You can find all the answers on Mrs. Sandoval's Awesome Science page, but you have to investigate the entire site!

    Have fun!

    Science Rocks!

    Games for Extra Credit!

    Mrs. Sandoval's Super Science Extra Credit Awesome Activities.

    Below is a list of approved games that Mrs. Sandoval's 7th Grade Science class can play for extra credit. The guidelines for extra credit are at the end of this page.

    Approved List of Extra Credit Games!

    Genes Evolution Adaptation

    Classification of living things!

    Evolution and Natural Selection games



    Body Systems Games
    Download this app to your iphone - The Nervous System
 Nervous system matching!
    print and label for extra credit

    Play the Blood Game... Learn how to play here

    The Skeletal System

    The Muscular System
    Learn about the muscular system here
    Then take the quiz for extra credit!
    The Respiratory System
    Name the Parts of an Animal, Plant or Bacteria Cell

    Interactive Human Body Systems - Organs, Muscles, Skeleton, Nervous System
    Help Dr. Dixon repair a weakened aorta!
    Help our doctor diagnose 5 different knee replacement patients
    Take on the role of the Surgeon throughout a hip replacement surgery!
    Take on the role of the Surgeon throughout a hip resurfacing surgery!
    Help Dr. Vanessa Mei cut, probe and drill her way to helping her patient cope with a movement disorder through brain surgery!
    Learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D. weather caves! 
    The Food Chain Game

    Help the highway patrol recreate a deadly crash by examining the evidence and calculating the forces.

    Help engineering director Elena design and manufacture a cell phone to help senior citizens get the most out of new technology!
    Join Dr. Winter in the development of a nanoparticle!

    • Extra Credit Points are based on the # of items listed CORRECT at the end of each game.
    • Extra Credit Points can only be received if you play a game listed below. (I will continue to add to the list, students can recommend educational science games for approval as well. After approval students can begin to earn extra credit points.)
    • The final screen in each game shows the # of items listed CORRECT. Print final screen and turn in for exra credit or use the PrintScreen Option on your keyboard to email or post on Sandoval's Awesome Science page.

      If you want to take a screenshot of just the game results window, make sure that the window is the "active" window on your screen, then press Alt + PrntScr as seen below. You have copied the game window into your computer's clipboard (memory).

    To Get the Screenshot off the Clipboard
    1. Open Microsoft Paint. To open Paint, open the Start menu, click on "All Programs", click on "Accessories", and click on "Paint".
      • You may have Paint on your Start Menu already. If you see it, click it.
    2. Paste the screenshot. Click the "Select" tool along the top bar and choose "Rectangular Select" in Paint. Right-click on the canvas and select "Paste". Your screenshot will be pasted onto the canvas.
      • You can also paste the screenshot directly into a word document or an email by right-clicking the page that you are composing and selecting "Paste."
      • You can also hold down "Ctrl" and press "V" to paste.
      • On Windows XP and earlier, you can open the "Edit" menu and select "Paste" to paste.

    Example Screen Shot
    Mrs. Sandoval gets 9 extra points added to any assignment!



    Week of October 15, 2012
              The process of changing light energy to chemical energy
              Energy stored as sugar
              Occurs in plants and some algae
              Plants need light energy, CO2, and H2O
              Takes place in the chloroplasts, using chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants.
                                   6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy ------>C6H12O6 + 6O2                 carbon dioxide + water + sun's light --------> glucose + oxygen 
       Cellular Respiration

             The breakdown of glucose molecules (from photosynthesis in plants) to release energy
             Takes place in all living things in the mitochondria of the cell.
             Respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis. 
                        C6H12O+  6O2 ----------> 6CO2+6H2O
                         glucose + oxygen ------>  carbon dioxide + water            

    Oxygen combines with sugars to break molecular bonds, releasing the energy (in the form of ATP) contained in those bonds. In addition to the energy released, the products of the reaction are carbon dioxide and water. 

                                          Click here to see powerpoint.
    The Respiratory System
           Purpose of the respiratory system (exchange of gases)
              To provide a constant supply of oxygen to keep your body cells functioning.
              To remove carbon dioxide from the body cells.
                                                   Click here to view the powerpoint.

    Atoms, Elements, Molecules, Compouds

    October 11 & 12, 2012

    Atoms, Elements, Molecules, Compounds

    ATOMS are the basic building blocks of matter.

    Atoms are composed of particles called protons, electrons and neutrons.

        Protons carry a positive electrical charge, electrons carry a negative electrical charge  
        and neutrons carry no electrical charge at all. The protons and neutrons cluster together
        in the central part of the atom, called the
    nucleus, and the electrons 'orbit' the nucleus.

    An ELEMENT is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler
          substance by physical or chemical means.

      A MOLECULE is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically. (they can have 2 of the same elements)
      A COMPOUND is a molecule that contains at least two different elements.
      All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds.
      Molecular hydrogen (H2), molecular oxygen (O2) and molecular nitrogen (N2) are not compounds because each is composed of a single element.
      Water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are compounds because each is made from more than one elements.

    What Elements are we made up of?
    Most of the human body is made up of water, H2O.
    Most of a human body's mass is oxygen.
    Carbon, the basic unit for organic  molecules, comes in second.
    99% of the mass of the human body is made up of just six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.
    How do atoms combine to make compounds? Chemical Bonding
    Chemical Bonds, Chemical Bonds, Chemical Bonds!

    Click here to see the powerpoint.


  • Inorganic Compounds: Do not contain carbon (except carbon dioxide)
                                  They are mineral in nature.
  • Organic compounds: Contain significant amounts of carbon.
                                  They are biological in nature (bio=living
                                 Click here to for Compounds Class Worksheet

    Four types of organic compounds are important in living systems
    .Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins & Nucleic acids 
    Click Here to find out more!


    Atoms, Elements, Compounds and how they BOND!

    Today's Assignment Organic Compounds Worksheet
    Their in the food we eat!
    We need them to survive!
    They are Organic Compounds!

    made of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO)
    made of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO)
    made of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen (CHON)
    Nucleic Acids
    made of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous (CHONP)

    This last link will help wth the last 4 questions on todays assignment!

     They are biological in nature (bio means Scientist believed carbon was in living things, but found other carbon based molecules that were not alive, even in outer space. There's still so much to learn!!! Now we know some some non-living things have carbon, like carbon-dioxide. It is inorganic. So are Rocks! The are mineral in nature.

    Chemical Bonds!
    How to atom join to make molecules?
            Ionic bond occur between differencahrged atoms, positive or negatively charged atoms are
            attracted to each other and the positive atom gives (or loses) an electron to the negatively  
            charged atom. In ionic bonding electrons are gained or lost, so they can bond.
            Covalent bonds occur between negatively charged atoms and they share electrons to bond.
    See the powerpoint below!

    In class assignment Matter Review

    Orgnanic compounds are biological in nature (bio means Scientist believed carbon was in living things, but found other carbon based molecules that were not alive, even in outer space. There's still so much to learn!!! Now we know some some non-living things have carbon, like carbon-dioxide. It is inorganic. So are Rocks! The are mineral in nature.