Inherited and Learned Behavior

Watch these videos about dolphins...
This week's video project, watch each of the videos on this page and write 1 paragraph about their behavior and whether it is learned or innate (instinct).

Animals learn by playing
How does genetic variation occur
BBC Earth

Innate Behavior

Innate behavior is genetically programmed. Individuals inherit a suite of behaviors (often called an ethogram) just as they inherit physical traits such as body color and wing venation. In general, innate behaviors will always be:

    1. Heritable -- encoded in DNA and passed from generation to generation
    2. Intrinsic -- present in animals raised in isolation from others
    3. Stereotypic -- performed in the same way each time by each individual
    4. Inflexible -- not modified by development or experience

Dance flies mating. The female
is consuming a nuptial gift.

Do you play a sport?
If you play a sport like soccer, then you realize it takes a lot of work. Remember how you didn't know at all what you were doing when you first started? You had rules to figure out and skills to practice. Playing a sport is an example of a learned behavior.


Learned Behavior

Just about all human behaviors are learned. Learned behavior is behavior that occurs only after experience or practice. Learned behavior has an advantage over innate behavior: it is more flexible.

Learned behavior can be changed if conditions change. For example, you probably know the route from your house to your school. Assume that you moved to a new house in a different place, so you had to take a different route to school. What if following the old route was an innate behavior? You would not be able to adapt. Fortunately, it is a learned behavior. You can learn the new route just as you learned the old one.
Although most animals can learn, animals with greater intelligence are better at learning and have more learned behaviors. Humans are the most intelligent animals. They depend on learned behaviors more than any other species. Other highly intelligent species include apes, our closest relatives in the animal kingdom. They include chimpanzees and gorillas. Both are also very good at learning behaviors.
You may have heard of a gorilla named Koko. The psychologist, Dr. Francine Patterson, raised Koko. Dr. Patterson wanted to find out if gorillas could learn human language. Starting when Koko was just one year old, Dr. Patterson taught her to use sign language. Koko learned to use and understand more than 1,000 signs. Koko showed how much gorillas can learn. See A Conversation with Koko at
Think about some of the behaviors you have learned. They might include riding a bicycle, using a computer, and playing a musical instrument or sport. You probably did not learn all of these behaviors in the same way. Perhaps you learned some behaviors on your own, just by practicing. Other behaviors you may have learned from other people. Humans and other animals can learn behaviors in several different ways.
The following methods of learning will be explored below:
  1. Habituation (forming a habit)
  2. Observational learning
  3. Conditioning
  4. Play
  5. Insight learning
Click Here to watch

Amazing Cat homing abilities

Class Project for Ravens

6 Famous Psychology Experiments

Evolution, Adaptation & Variation

Week of February 17 Homework

Please watch the video below and write one paragraph about one of the following topics discussed, making tools, imitation or copying, cooperation, social emotions, math/symbol skills, communication.

Video - Ape Genius

What do you see?
David Hall/Minden Pictures
Look closely. There is an animal hiding in the kelp. This unique creaturea leafy sea dragonclosely resembles the kelp in its ocean environment. Predators have a hard time seeing this animal. The sea dragons appearance is an example of an adaptation.

you ever seen an animal that blended in with its environment? Most species over long periods of time have developed ways to hide from predators. Looking like their environment is one way that organisms avoid being eaten.

Evidence of Natural Selection
Let's look at an example to help make natural selection clear.
Industrial melanism is a phenomenon that affected over 70 species of moths in England. It has been best studied in the peppered moth, Biston betularia. Prior to 1800, the typical moth of the species had a light pattern (see Figure 2). Dark colored or melanic moths were rare and were therefore collectors' items.
Image of Peppered Moth
Figure 2. Image of Peppered Moth
During the Industrial Revolution, soot and other industrial wastes darkened tree trunks and killed off lichens. The light-colored morph of the moth became rare and the dark morph became abundant. In 1819, the first melanic morph was seen; by 1886, it was far more common -- illustrating rapid evolutionary change.
Eventually light morphs were common in only a few locales, far from industrial areas. The cause of this change was thought to be selective predation by birds, which favored camouflage coloration in the moth.
In the 1950's, the biologist Kettlewell did release-recapture experiments using both morphs. A brief summary of his results are shown below. By observing bird predation from blinds, he could confirm that conspicuousness of moth greatly influenced the chance it would be eaten.
Recapture Success
light moth
dark moth
non-industrial woods
14.6 %
4.7 %
industrial woods
13 %
27.5 %
Penguin Adaptation
Penguins are designed for life in the sea. Some species spend as much as 75% of their lives in the water. (They lay their eggs and to raise their chicks on land.) Heavy, solid bones act like a diver's weight belt, allowing them to stay underwater. Their wings, shaped like flippers, help them "fly" underwater at speeds up to 15 mph. A streamlined body, paddle-like feet, insulating blubber, and watertight feathers all add to their efficiency and comfort underwater. They also have a remarkable deep-diving ability.
In addition to blubber for insulating warmth, penguins have stiff, tightly packed feathers (up to 70 per sq. in.) that overlap to provide waterproofing. They coat their feathers with oil from a gland near the tail to increase impermeability. Black and white countershading makes them nearly invisible to predators from above and below.
Like most birds, penguins have little or no sense of smell (a boon for those in a crowded penguin rookery!) Like other birds, their sense of taste is also limited. Their vision appears to be better when they are underwater. Scientists suspect they may be nearsighted on land.
Penguins are considered to be the most social of birds. Rookeries may contain thousands of individuals. (As many as 24 million penguins visit the Antarctic continent!) Even at sea, they tend to swim and feed in groups.
 Local Adaptation - More Examples
So far we have emphasized that natural selection is the cornerstone of evolutionary theory. It provides the mechanism for adaptive change. Any change in the environment (such as a change in the background color of the tree trunk that you roost on) is likely to lead to local adaptation. Any widespread population is likely to experience different environmental conditions in different parts of its range. As a consequence it will soon consist of a number of sub-populations that differ slightly, or even considerably.
The following are examples that illustrate the adaptation of populations to local conditions.
    • The rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta, has recognizably different populations in different locales of eastern North America (see Figure 3). Whether these should be called geographic "races" or subspecies is debatable. These populations all comprise one species, because mating can occur between adjacent populations, causing the species to share a common gene pool.
Image of Rat Snakes
Figure 3: Subspecies of the rat snake
Animals and plants are adapted to the conditions of the habitats in which they live.
Animals live everywhere on Earth. Some places on Earth are very hot and some are very cold. Some places on Earth have a lot of water and plants, and other places have very little water and few plants. More than 99 percent of Antarctica is covered with ice but a few plants still grow there, mostly lichens, mosses, and algae. Antarctica is very cold.
Guess what?
Animals even live in Antarctica! The animals in Antarctica are dependent on the sea for feeding or are migratory and leave the continent when the winter arrives.
Animals can live in many different places in the world because they have special adaptations to the area they live in.
What is an adaptation?An adaptation is a way an animal's body helps it survive, or live, in its environment. Camels have learned to adapt (or change) so that they can survive.
Animals depend on their physical features to help them obtain food, keep safe, build homes, withstand weather, and attract mates. These physical features are called called physical adaptations. They makes it possible for the animal to live in a particular place and in a particular way.

Each adaptation has been produced by evolution. This means that the adaptations have developed over many generations.
Examples of the basic adaptations that help creatures survive:
  • shape of a bird's beak,
  • the number of fingers,
  • colour of the fur,
  • the thickness or thinness of the fur,
  • the shape of the nose or ears
What is a mimicry adaptation?
Mimicry is adapting to look like something else. An example would be the hawkmoth as it looks just like a dead leaf, tattered and veined.

Genetics and Heredity Webquest

Genetics and Heredity Webquest

Web Quest: Mendelian Genetics Name: _____________________

Heredity Period: _____ Date: __________

This web quest takes you through various websites to better understand genetics. Use the following questions and directions to navigate through the sites. Record the information to the questions as you find it.

 Just click on the links for this web quest as needed

Now go to this site:

Answer Problem #1 on this page. You can use this Punnett Square:

#1. Write your answer here: ___________. Click on it to see if you are correct.

If not it will teach how to do it correctly. The “Tutorial” button will help too.

Now skip ahead to Problem #4 by clicking through the problem button (in orange text) on the lower part of page or just skip to this page:

Answer Problem #4 on this page. You can use this Punnett Square:

#4. Write your answer here: ___________. Click on it to see if you are correct.

If not it will teach how to do it correctly. The “Tutorial” button will help too.

Now go to this site:

Eye color determined by at least three alleles ( a polygenic trait) and other genes for the cell structure of the eye. It is thus very complex about what color offspring eyes will be and how they may change color.

1. Scroll down to the Eye Color Calculator!

2. First, select the Parents' eye colors:

Eye Color of: __________________ X Eye Color of: _________________

Mother Father

3. Now select the parents' eye color genes: please circle the genotype (gene pair) you chose for each.

Mother's Genes: Father's Genes:

Brown/Blue gene & Green/Blue gene Brown/Blue gene & Green/Blue gene

Brown/Brown Green/Green Brown/Brown Green/Green

Brown/Blue Green/Blue Brown/Blue Green/Blue

Blue/Blue Blue/Blue Blue/Blue Blue/Blue

4. Now produce a child by clicking on the “Produce” button. Please do this 20 times.

5. Record the number of children that had the following eye color:

Brown eyed Children:____ Green eyed Children: ____ Blue eyed Children: ____

Try to rank the dominance of the three eye color genes starting with the gene that is most dominant to the one most recessive: #1 ___________________ , #2 ___________________ , #3 ___________________ .

Please go to the website:

Click on: Dragon Genetics: This activity explores the relationship between genotype and phenotype using both dominant and recessive traits. By changing alleles (genotype), you create corresponding changes in the dragon's physical appearance (phenotype).

Scroll down and follow the directions-it says to make nine dragons (any combination of male and female) until you see the “NEXT” button show up in the lower left corner and then click on it.

As you follow the directions in the pink section-(after changing the genes a while for the upper left dragon it will give you a new dragon in the lower left corner to change—after the next button and egg are clicked on)

1. How many chromosome pairs (yellow and purple paired;

‘chr’ is the abbreviation for chromosome) does a dragon have? ___________

2. How many gene pairs are there on chromosome 2? __________

3. What combination (pairing) of alleles makes your dragon

have a unicorn horn? ____ & ____

4. Is the unicorn allele dominant or recessive? Circle the correct type of allele.

5. What combination (pairing) of alleles makes your dragon have blue skin?

Color 1 genes: ____ & ____ ; Color 2 genes: ____ & ____

6. What combination (pairing) of alleles makes your dragon breathe red fire? ____ & ____

7. Did changing your dragon’s genes (genotype) always change what it looked like

(phenotype)? Explain: _________________________________________________


8. There is a combination of alleles for color that will cause your dragon to die (as shown

by the skeleton picture and no other genes can be changed).

What is it? ____ & ____

Now please go to this site:

On this site please do the problem section on the topic: “Chromosomes Carry Genes.”

Follow the text and use arrows (lower right corner) to progress through the problem. The questions shown on the web site are shown below:

If the ebony trait is recessive then what color are the offspring? _________________

Knowing the Punnett Square results of the cross: How many of the 152 brown body flies are heterozygous for ebony? ________________

Knowing the gender results is the ebony trait sex(gender)-linked or not? _________________ 

Now please go to this site:

Look at the bottom left corner of this site and look for the mouse with the swimming goggles on the sliding menu and click on it. Read about the experiment and then click the start button when you are ready to see experiment.

Determine if the SAP102 gene affects spatial memory of mice who have been trained to swim to the nearest platform. One group of mice lacks the sap102 gene, which may affect the trait of spatial memory, is compared to wild-type (typical mice that we expect to find in nature). They are dropped into a water maze with a hidden platform and in another set of trails with a visible platform. Go through steps #1-5 (or #4 at least since it has final results but no video of actual experience).

Record the data below:

Average Time to Platform –Hidden

Average Time to Platform –Visible

To find the averages of the swim paths just add the four swim times and divide by four.

Wild Type

SAP102 Gene missing

Write a summary if the sap102 gene affects spatial memory: _____________________



DNA, Heredity, Natural Selection and Adaptation

Diversity of Organisms
Have you ever wondered how Earth came to have a diversity of living things? Millions of different types, or species, of organisms exist on Earth. Each species has its own set of traits. All species of fish have fish traits, and all species of birds have bird traits. However, not all fish have the same fish traits, nor do all birds have the same bird traits. As shown in Figure 1, penguins and hummingbirds both have wings, feathers, and beaks. Yet these traits are very different. How can these species be so different and yet have similar traits?

(t) CORBIS, (b) Digital Vision/Getty Images
Figure 1 A penguin and a hummingbird look very different but both have bird traits.
Darwins Model
In the early 1800s, the puzzle of diversity captured the attention of a young naturalist in England named Charles Darwin. A naturalist studies the history and varieties of life. Over many years of studying many different life forms, Darwin developed a scientific theory that helped him understand how one group of organisms can be different yet have similar traits. As you will read, Darwins theory, called the theory of evolution by natural selection, explains how traits and species can change over time.
Darwins Observations
In 1831, when Darwin was a young man, he began a five-year journey around the world. During this journey, Darwin observed and collected many animals and plants. Among them was a group of finches from the Galápagos Islands, which are off the coast of South America. Darwin was fascinated by the different environments of these islands. As shown in Figure 2, the environment on some islands was dry and had cacti (singular, cactus). Others had a moist environment and trees.

(t) Hiroya Minakuchi/Minden Pictures, (c) Images&Stories/Alamy, (b) Mark Moffett/Minden Pictures/Getty Images
Figure 2 Each finch that Darwin collected had a beak specialized for a particular environment and diet.
1. Visual CheckWhat makes the cactus finchs beak best suited to eat cactus seeds?
Darwins Finches
The finches that Darwin collected on the islands were all about the same size and color, but the finches had different beaks. The beaks were so different that Darwin considered each type of bird as a separate species. When he returned to England, Darwin realized that each species of finch he collected had come from a different island. He noticed that each species of finch was specialized, or suited, for living in a particular environment and eating the food found there.
the struggle among organisms for food, space, and other requirements
Darwins Theory
After years of studying the Galápagos finches, Darwin proposed that the different finch species developed over a long period of time from one group of finches. He proposed that this group had arrived on one of the islands many generations ago. Perhaps a storm carried it over from the mainland.
Over time, as the finch population grew, the finches moved to the other islands. Soon, the food and other resources on each island began to run out. The finches had to compete with each other to survive. The finches with traits that made them better competitors for resources in their environments lived longer. They also produced more offspring than those that did not have those traits. This is the core of Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection. During the process of natural selection, organisms with traits best suited to their environment are most likely to survive and reproduce.
1. Reading CheckWhy is competition important to natural selection?
The finch species were suited to their different island environments because of the differences in their beaks. These differences developed over time partly because each member of a species is slightly different. In Figure 3, each beetle has slight variations (ver ee AY shunz) in its appearance even though all the beetles are members of the same species. A variation is a small change in a trait that makes an individual slightly different from other members of its species.

PSU Entomology/Photo Researchers
Figure 3 These beetles are all members of the same species. Yet each has slight variations.
Source of Variations
Where do variations come from? You read earlier that a mutation is a change in a gene. Sometimes, a mutation can change an organisms phenotype. When it does, it gives the organism a variation.
Variations and Survival
Some variations that arise from mutations can hurt an organism. Others might help an organism live longer. For example, a variation might make an organism better able to find food or help it avoid being caught by a predator. An individual organism that lives longer has a greater chance of reproducing and passing a variation to its offspring. Over time, as more and more offspring are born with the variation, the variation becomes a trait of the population. Natural selection might produce a beneficial color variation in a population of moths like the one shown in Figure 4.
2. Key Concept CheckHow might a variation be beneficial to an organism?
Figure 4 Natural selection favors moths with a variation that makes them harder for a predator to see.
from Latin variationem, meansa difference
Math Skills: Use Statistics
The mean of a set of data is the arithmetic average. To find the mean of a group of numbers:
1. find the sum of all the numbers; and
2. divide the sum by the number of items in the set.
For example, a hawk catches 10 mice on the first day, 8 on the second day, and 12 on the third day. The mean number of mice caught by the hawk is equal to 10 + 8 + 12 divided by 3 days. (30 mice/3 days = 10 mice/day.)
1. Practice
The life spans of a group of worker bees were 34, 28, 39, 27, 24, 35, 30, and 29 days. What is the mean life span of the bees?
MiniLab: Can you change a caribou to fit your environment?
Caribou, like the one in the photo below, are a species of large deer that live on the tundra. A tundra is a cold region where summers are very short and few trees grow. Not many organisms can survive there.

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/Dean Biggens
1. Each member of your group will suggest one variation to the caribous physical characteristics that might help it adapt to the environment where you live. The next person should try to improve on that variation or think of a new variation.
2. Make a list of the variations suggested and how each variation might help caribou adapt to your environment in your Science Journal.
Analyze and Conclude
1. Infer how the characteristics of caribou make them well suited to their tundra environment.
2. Hypothesize what might happen to caribou if their environment changed but variations did not occur within individual members of the species.
3. Key Concept CheckDescribe how some internal and external variations might help an organism survive while other variations might not help an organism survive. Be sure to give examples of both internal and external variations in your description.
Genes that express favorable variations can be passed to future generations. Over long periods of time, this process results in species of organisms with special traits called adaptations. An adaptation is an inherited trait that increases an organisms chance of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment.
Adaptations can be physical traits or behavioral traits. Green tree frogs, such as the one shown in Figure 5, have long, sticky tongues. This is a physical adaptation that helps the frogs catch insects. Vascular plants have xylem, which are internal hollow tubes. This physical adaptation enables the transport of water throughout the plants. A behavioral adaptation involves actions rather than body structure. Mass movement, or migration, is a behavioral adaptation that helps some species survive. For example, blue whales migrate thousands of kilometers each year. They mate and give birth in the tropics during the winter, then migrate to summer feeding grounds in the Arctic or the Antarctic.
1. Key Concept CheckWhat is the difference between an adaptation and a trait?

Buddy Mays/CORBIS
Figure 5 The green tree frogs long, sticky tongue is a physical adaptation.
Finding Food
All species have adaptations that help them find food. Many of these adaptations involve the senses. Hawks and eagles have excellent eyesight. They see their prey while flying high above the ground. Other animals, including sharks, anteaters, and raccoons, use their keen sense of smell to find food.
Mouthpart adaptations help individuals of many species eat their food. Recall that the beaks of Darwins finches were specialized for eating the different foods on their islands. Examples of mouthpart adaptations in insects are shown in Figure 6.

(l) Le-Dung Ly/Getty Images, (c) David Maitland/Getty Images, (r) Charles Krebs/Getty Images
Figure 6 Insect mouthpart adaptations differ depending on the food the insects eat.
Visual CheckWhat kind of environment would you expect each of these insects to live in?
Avoiding Predators
Avoiding being eaten is as important as finding food to eat. Structures on some species, such as sharp quills on porcupines or thorns on roses, discourage predators. Other organisms contain chemicals on their bodies or leaves that make them taste bad to predators.
Other species have adaptations that help them hide from or trick predators. A leafy sea dragon, like the one shown at the beginning of this lesson, resembles the kelp in its environment. The ability to blend in with the environment is called camouflage (KA muh flahj). Camouflage makes an animal hard for a predator to see. Another adaptation that tricks predators is shown in Figure 7.
2. Key Concept CheckHow does camouflage help members of a species survive?

Gary Meszaros/Visuals Unlimited/Getty Images
Figure 7 This caterpillar looks and acts like a snake, startling predators.
Most species of organisms move to find food and avoid predators. Even some species that spend most of their lives in one place, like the barnacle shown in Figure 8, have adaptations for movement. Muscle and bone adaptations such as fins, wings, and long legs enable many species of animals to swim, fly, or run. Some unicellular species of organisms, such as Paramecia, move by beating tiny hairlike cilia (SIH lee uh).
Though plants cannot move from place to place, some species can turn and follow the Suns path across the sky. This adaptation helps them receive the maximum amount of sunlight. Adaptations in seeds enable some plant species to disperse their offspring across great distances. For example, sticky seeds can attach to animals, and as the animals move from place to place they deposit the seeds. Seeds such as dandelion seeds can be carried by the wind.
Many species are well adapted to move in one environment but poorly adapted to move in another. Have you ever seen a penguin walk? Penguins have flippers that help them swim fast in the water, where they find their food. On land, they are clumsy walkers.

Barrie Watts/Photolibrary
Figure 8 A barnacle moves its feathery legs as it feeds.
Surviving Extremes
Some species must adapt to freezing temperatures, drought, or other environmental extremes in order to survive. The cacti that inhabit desert environments have special stems that store water. Polar bears have layers of fat that insulate them, protecting them from air temperatures that can reach45°C. Some animal species, such as brown bats and snakes, adapt to cold weather by becoming much less active. Adaptations have enabled life-forms to live in some of Earths most extreme environments, such as the ones shown in Figure 9.

(t) CORBIS, (b) Miguel A. Muñoz Pellicer/Alamy
Figure 9 Because of their adaptations, some species can live in extremely cold or hot environments.
In areas of extreme cold, such as the one with icebergs shown above, species such as the ice fish live in water as cold as2°C, but its blood doesn't freeze because it contains a substance similar to antifreeze.

In areas of extreme heat, such as the hot springs in Yellowstone National Park shown above, special proteins enable some species to thrive in the hot springs where temperatures can reach 100°C.
(noun) instinctive, seasonal movement of animals from one place to another
Selective Breeding
You have read that species of organisms adapt to their environments through the process of natural selection. In this process, changes to genes that help an organism survive accumulate over time. Humans can also change an organisms genes by choosing which organisms will reproduce. This process is called selective breeding. Selective breeding is the deliberate breeding of plants or animals for desired traits. Breeders select plants or animals that have a specific trait. They then breed them so that their offspring will have the desired trait. Over many generations, the resulting organisms can have a phenotype and a genotype very different from the original ancestor.
1. Key Concept Check How are changes caused by selective breeding different from changes caused by the environment?
Most of the food you eat is the result of selective breeding. For example, cows are bred for meat quality or increased milk production. Some chickens are bred for increased egg production. Fruits and vegetables are selectively bred for traits that enable them to tolerate cold, have a better taste, or grow larger. The ear of corn shown in Figure 10 is much bigger than the ear of its ancestor, teosinte (tay oh SIN tee).

(l) Courtesy John Doebley (r) Burke Triolo Productions / Getty Images
Figure 10 Modern corn is the result of thousands of years of selective breeding from teosinte, shown on the left.
Do you have a dog or a cat? Most pets have been selectively bred over many years. Domestic cats were bred from wild cats. Dogs were bred from wolves. As shown in Figure 11, dogs today can be so different from each other that it is hard to tell they all belong to the same species.

(l, front) David Allan Brandt/Getty Images, (l, back) Tracy Morgan/Getty Images, (r) Mattias Klum/National Geographic/Getty Images
Figure 11 There are many different breeds of dogs today, but they all originated from a common ancestor, the wolf.
Lesson Review
Visual Summary
Natural selection means that organisms with traits best suited to their environment are the most likely to survive and reproduce.

Mark Moffett/Minden Pictures/Getty Images
Over time, variations in a population can result in adaptations.

Buddy Mays/CORBIS
Humans can influence traits in plants and animals through selective breeding.

David Allan Brandt/Getty Images
What do you think NOW?
You first read the statements below at the beginning of the lesson.
1. Charles Darwins observations of bird beaks helped him develop his theory of natural selection.
2. Mutations are harmful.
3. When humans breed cows that produce more milk, there is no change to the offsprings genes.
Did you change your mind about whether you agree or disagree with the statements? Rewrite any false statements to make them true.
Use Vocabulary
1. Use the term variation in a sentence.
2. Define adaptation in your own words.
3. Darwins observations led to the development of the theory of __________ __________.
Understand Key Concepts
4. Discuss how natural selection produces adaptations found in a population of organisms.
5. Compare the processes of natural selection and selective breeding.
6. Which situation has given rise to a trait that could be passed on to offspring?
A.A boat motor cut off the arm of a starfish.
B.A gardeners application of fertilizer produced large roses.
C.An all-white honeybee was born.
D.A sled dog developed strong muscles.
7. What does the drawing below illustrate?

Drawing showing a rabbit moving out of the sunshine into the shadow cast by a bush
A.a behavioral adaptation
B.a genotype variation
C.a phenotype variation
D.a physical adaptation
8. Which did Charles Darwin observe on the Galápagos Islands?
A.differences in phenotypes in populations
B.genes undergoing the process of mutation islands being formed
D.selective breeding practices
9. Natural selection results in
A.all harmful traits being eliminated from a population.
B.a population that is adapted to an environment.
C.a perfectly adapted group of organisms.
D.long-lasting adaptations.
10. Which is an example of selective breeding?
A.a farmer that mates his largest pigs that swim thousands of kilometers to lay eggs
C.lizards that avoid being preyed upon because they taste bad
D.male and female frogs that blend in with their environment
Interpret Graphics
11. Organize Information Copy and fill in the graphic organizer below to describe ways that adaptations help organisms survive.

Example of a graphic organizer with a large blank oval in the center and two smaller blank ovals branching off below it
Critical Thinking
12. Explain how the color of the fox in the photo below might be an adaptation.

Photograph of a white Arctic fox walking in snow
13. InvestigateOne of the internal adaptations birds have is hollow bones. Investigate how this adaptation enables birds to fly. Write a paragraph describing your findings.
14. Explain how mutations and variations are related.
15. Compare and contrast migration in robins and a thick fat layer in polar bears.
16. Argue Mutations are often considered bad. Make an argument for why mutations can be beneficial.
17. Draw an organism adapted to the following environment: A crystal-clear lake has a sandy bottom. The oxygen content of the water is low. There are many predators in the lake. Explain each adaptation.
18. Interpret Graphics The coral snake below is venomous. The Scarlet king snake is not. Explain how the Scarlet king snakes color pattern is an adaptation. What advantage does the adaptation provide for the king snake?

Illustration of an eastern coral snake and a scarlet king snake. The coral snake has thick bands of black and red with thin bands of yellow; the king snake has thick bands of red and thin bands of black and yellow.
19. Why do living things have such diverse traits? Summarize how the theory of natural selection explains the diversity of one kind of organism, such as fish or trees.
20. Identify which traits of the tarsier below are adaptations that help it survive in its dense tropical environment.

Photograph of a western tarsier clinging to a tree
Frans Lanting/CORBIS
Writing in Science
21. Write a paragraph comparing natural selection and selective breeding. Explain their similarities and differences using an example of each. Be sure to include a topic sentence and a concluding sentence.
Math Skills
Use Statistics
22. Individuals from a certain species of plant sometimes developed sticky leaves. These leaves trapped insects feeding on the plant. During several generations, 8, 13, 9, and 12 of these variations appeared per 100 plants. What was the mean number of plants with this variation?
Use the following information to answer questions 23 and 24.
The table shows the number of seeds eaten by three different species of finches over a period of time. The species eat similar food and live in the same area.

Data table showing the number of seeds certain species eat per day
23. Assuming that each finch requires a minimum of 225 seeds per day to survive, which species has the best chance of survival?
24. Which species is least able to compete for food in its environment?

Week of February 11 Homework

Please watch the video below and write one paragraph about 1 of the genetic discoveries.

Dragon Traits

Heredity & Traits

Natural Selection

More on Natural Selection

Natural Selection & Artificial Breeding

Mating Season

Lessons About Heredity and Variation

Chicken Genetics

Weird Science and Mutations
Genetic Abnormalities or Experiments

10 Controversial Genetic Experiments